Topic Wise 400 Probables For General Studies Mains

Topic wise 400 Probables For General Studies 

60% questions in General Studies Mains 2016,15 & 14






How To Crack Civil Services ? A Step By Step Strategy

It is not difficult to crack UPSC in the first attempt if you just ask the following questions before you start your preparation for the exam.

The only way to know if you can be an IAS is self observation
Do you feel that when you are thinking about upsc your attention sharpens by itself

No other thought bothers you when you are studing the subjects.

There is absolutely nothing else that you want to do , day in day out you are thinking of how to crack the exam in a passionate way not an insane way

If you really want to become an IAS officer you will fullfill these conditions if not your interest lies somewhere else wait for it.

Now if you fullfill these conditions we want you to go through the following steps and apply them at your own convenience.

Focus should be the pattern on which upsc asks questions
Most important mantra
One thing is certain the UPSC asks questions from events of last <1.5 years in MAINS and current events for PRELIMS.So every year you will have to study for one year.

Only one thing keeps people from achieving success in one year of preparation is that their base is not strong enough and
they are not clear about what is to read and what is to be left from hindu , indian express , etc .There are very few books in the market that can help aspirants with mains preparation .

This is the pattern on which upsc will test you.

There are no basic way to start with your preparation for UPSC .The first and foremost thing for you to understand is that all your effort should be in the right direction because with every attempt your enthusiam might decrease and negative thoughts like “mere se nahi ho paega” might start bulling you. We suggest you try to understand the pattern on which upsc will ask questions .

One you are done with this start preparing all the subjects on this pattern .Build your basics keeping in mind the pattern .
The upsc preparation should be mains oriented prelims is covered in the process of preparing for Mains .

Analytical mindset is the key to cracking mains and it will take a lot of practice , repetition , passion .Prelims can be done reading some standard books and current affairs , but mains will need a deeper sense of understanding .Some books help you build basics and the same time develope this analytical perspective and makes you understand the crux of every situation rather than wasting your time and beating around the bush .

You will need to study hindu, yojana, indian express other current affair sources say for example may 2016 – nov 2017 if you are preparing for mains in 2017.

This is the pattern for mains be it economy , polity , science , geography.Now some books cover these sources for economy – March of the indian economy by Heed Publications it will help you with building your basics as well as current affairs from the above mentioned sources and timeline. You can buy complete set of heed Publications. Our books are prepared on the pattern on which the UPSC will ask questions .


1) March Of The Indian Economy From CIA to LPG to PPP to SIR (1947 – 2017) Ishwar Dhingra
2) Blueprint to Crack IAS in 1st attempt – Vandana Maheshwari
3) Indian and World Geography – Ishwar Dhingra
4) Snippets Of Indian Polity – Rohit Vadhwana IFS
5) Topic Wise 400 Probables For General Studies Mains – Kumar ujjwal
6) General Studies For Civil Services Mains – Vandana Maheshwari
7) Master Your Mind To Crack IAS – Ishwar Dhingra
8) A new Approach to General Science – Ishwar Dhingra


March Of The  INDIAN ECONOMY from CIA – LPG – PPP- SIR ( 1947-2017) 

  90% Economy Questions In Prelims & GS III 2016 & 15




 Indian economy syllabus

Analysis of  Indian Economy


  • Land Reforms
  • Green Revolution and Second Green Revolution
  • Minimum Support Prices (MSP), Procurement prices, Issue price (important. who decides the MSP, the current MSP for principal crops etc)
  • Buffer Stock (norms, current data)
  • Economic Cost of Foodgrains
  • Decentralised Procurement Scheme
  • Rising Food Subsidy
  • National Flood Security Bill
  • Agricultural Marketing
  • e-choupal
  • Trifed
  • Nafed
  • Storing facilities for Agriculture Products (role of FCI, CWC and other central and state agencies)
  • Agricultural Credit (linked to farmer suicides in many states)
  • Commodity Futures Market
  • Farm Waste Debate
  • Irrigation
  • National Food Security Mission (NFSM) and other Missions like National Bamboo Mission, National Horticulture Mission etc.
  • Macro Management of Agriculture (MMA)
  • Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY)
  • National Agricultural Policy, 2000 (should know the important points at all times)
  • Agricultural Insurance
  • Extension Services
  • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)
  • WTO and the Indian Agriculture: Prospects and Challenges (also relevant for Mains)
  • WTO and Agricultural Subsidies (also relevant for Mains)

Money and Banking

  • Indian Money Market
  • Indian Capital Market
  • Monetary Policy Tools
  • Financial Institutions
  • Mutual Fund (MF)
  • Bank & Non-Bank Institutions
  • Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCS)
  • Reserve Bank of India
  • Marginal Standing Facility (MSF)
  • Base Rate
  • Nationalisation and Development of Banking
  • Financial Sector Reforms
  • Banking Sector Reform
  • New Rules for Opening Banks
  • The Menace of NPAS
  • Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) and Why to Maintain CAR?
  • Non-Resident Indian Deposits
  • Primary and Secondary Markets
  • Stock Exchange
  • SEBI
  • Important Terms of Stock Market
  • Short Selling
  • Insurance Industry
  • Insurance Reforms
  • National Export Insurance Account

Industry and Infrastructure

  • Industrial Policy Resolution, 1948, 1956, 1969, 1980, 1985-86
  • Disinvestment
  • Investment Challenge
  • New Manufacturing Policy
  • National Policy on Electronics
  • India Infrastructure and Finance Company

External Trade

  • Foreign Currency Assets
  • Foreign Exchange Reserve
  • Fixed Currency Regime
  • Floating Currency Regime
  • Managed Exchange Rates
  • Foreign Exchange Market
  • Exchange Rate in India
  • Trade Balance
  • Trade Policy
  • Depreciation
  • Devaluation
  • Revaluation
  • Appreciation
  • Current Account
  • Capital Account
  • Balance of Payment (BoP)
  • Convertibility
  • NEER
  • REER
  • EFF
  • IMF Conditions on India
  • Hard Currency
  • Soft Currency
  • Hot Currency
  • Heated Currency
  • Cheap Currency
  • Dear Currency
  • Special Economic Zone
  • Autonomous Bodies
  • Other Organizations
  • Advisory Bodies

External Assistance and International Economic Organizations

This topic is also of high relevance for Mains GS paper.

  • International Monetary System
  • Bretton Woods Development
  • International Monetary Fund
  • World Bank
  • Asian Development Bank
  • OECD
  • World Trade Organisation (WTO)
  • WTO Negotiations and India

Public Finance

  • Budget
  • Fiscal Policy
  • Limiting Government Expenditure (fiscal deficit and other deficits)
  • Fiscal Consolidation in India
  • Zero-Base Budgeting
  • Charged Expenditure
  • Types of Budgets
  • Cut Motion
  • Interest Payments
  • Subsidies (direct cash transfer currently in the news)
  • Government Debt
  • State-Level Finances (the mess state governments are in)

Poverty, Social Security and Sustainable Development

  • Human and Gender Development
  • Inclusive Development
  • Poverty and Inclusive Growth (BPL definition, methods to estimate poverty and  recommendations of committees)
  • Inequality
  • Employment
  • Poverty Alleviation and Employment Generation Programmes
  • Social Protection
  • Rural Infrastructure
  • Urban Infrastructure
  • Skill Development
  • Education
  • Health
  • Women and Child Development

Planning, Growth and Development

  • Economic Growth and Development Definitions
  • Planned and Mixed Economy
  • Emphasis on the Public Sector
  • Origin and Expansion of Planning
  • Types of Planning
  • Major Objectives of Planning
  • Planning Commission
  • National Development Council
  • Central Planning
  • Multi-Level Planning
  • Way to Decentralised Planning and Importance
  • The Planning Commission & The Finance Commission
  • The Changing Nature and Role of Planning
  • Economic Reforms
  • Economic Reforms In India
  • Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation


  • Why Inflation Occurs
  • Types of Inflation
  • Other Variants of Inflation
  • Other Important Terms
  • Effects of Inflation

Indian Tax Structure

  • Methods of Taxation
  • Methods of Expenditure
  • Value Added Tax (and need of VAT)
  • Goods and Services Tax
  • Additional Excise Duty
  • CST Reforms
  • Service Tax
  • Tax Expenditure
  • Non-Tax Revenue

The above rundown may appear to be long to a few, yet it is thorough in degree. A portion of the points above are required to be shrouded inside and out while some require sensible associate. Likewise questions on a portion of the subjects recorded above like external trade and assistance, planning, taxation, poverty and sustainable development are frequently asked in the GS Mains paper too.



Analysis of  Indian and World Geography 


The geography section in the IAS prelims syllabus gives the real depth of Indian Geography and World Geography and most of the questions are linked directly or indirectly with geography. The questions asked in prelims are from physical, social and economic geography of India and the world.

Physical Geography

  1. i) Geomorphology

Origin of the earth; Geological Time Scale; Interior of the earth; Types and characteristics of rocks; Folding and Faulting; Volcanoes; Earthquakes; Weathering; Landforms caused by fluvial, aeolian and glacial actions.

  1. ii) Climatology

Structure and composition of atmosphere; Temperature; Pressure belts and Wind systems; Clouds and rainfall types; Cyclones and anticyclones; Major climatic types.

iii) Oceanography

Ocean relief; Temperature; Salinity; Ocean deposits; Ocean currents, El Nino and La Nino; Waves and tides.

  1. iv) Biogeography

Origin and types of soils; Major biomes of the world; Ecosystem and food chain; Environmental degradation and conservation.

Human Geography

  1. i) Man and Environment Relationship

Growth and development of Human Geography; Concepts of Determinism and Possibilism.

  1. ii) Population

Races of mankind and tribes; growth and distribution of world population; migration; population problems of developed and developing countries.

iii) Economic Activities

Food gathering and hunting; pastoral herding; fishing and forestry; Types of agriculture-shifting, subsistence, commercial and plantation; Mining, Power; Manufacturing -locational factors of textile, iron and steel, sugar and fertilizer industries; Tertiary activities-trade, transport, communication and services.

  1. iv) Settlements

Origin, types and patterns of rural settlements; Processes of urbanisation; morphology and functional classification of towns; million-cities and megacities.

Geography of the World

  1. i) Major Natural Regions : Characteristics, economic base and human adaptation.
  2. ii) Regional Geography of Developed Countries : Canada, U.S.A., Western Europe, Russia, Japan, Australia and New Zealand.

iii) Regional Geography of Developing Countries : S.E. Asia, S.W. Asia, China, Southern Africa and Brazil.

  1. iv) Regional Geography of South Asia.

Geography of India

  1. i) Physical Setting

Landforms, drainage, climate, soils and natural vegetation.

  1. ii) Economic Base

Minerals & energy resources, aquatic resources, forest resources; irrigation, agriculture and industries; trade and commerce.

iii) Population

Growth, distribution and density; demographic characteristics.

  1. iv) Environmental problems, developmental issues and regional planning.

Geographical Thought

  1. i) Ancient Period : Contributions of Indians, Greeks, Romans and Arabs.
  2. ii) Pre-Modern Period : Contribution of Verenius, Kant, Humboldt and Ritter.

iii) Modern Period : Dichotomy of determinism and possibilism; contributions of Ratzel, Semple, Huntington and La Blache.iv) Recent Period : Quantitative Revolution; Radicalism, Behaviorism and Humanism.




It can be divided into four parts—Science and Technology, Biology, Chemistry and Physics. On an average, 25 to 30 questions can be expected from this section. For students with Humanities background, this section is always a nightmare. But the basic understanding of science, especially a thorough understanding of NCERT books, can solve most of the questions. Ignoring this area can be suicidal for any candidate.

Science and technology have become an important section of GS for the last six years. The number of questions varies from 6 to 8. In this part, questions are mainly from the current developments in India. For example, the testing of various missiles and space missions like Prithvi, Agni, Chadrayaan 1, etc. More often questions are also from defence institutions/ establishments like DRDO. Newspapers can be useful for this section.

Among the General Science subject, Biology is the most important. Recent analysis shows that questions on General Science cover general appreciation and understanding of day-to-day science.

In Biology, the thrust is on Zoology. Only a few questions are being asked from Botany, particularly the biological diversity and plant system. In Zoology, most of the questions are related to the human system and diseases. Communicable diseases and nutrition have always been significant.

In Chemistry, questions are comparatively little. Normally 5 to 6 questions can be expected. The application part of Chemistry is more important in the exam. Technical details and equations are not that important. NCERT books from class VIIIth to Xth will be highly useful. A special page of THE HINDU which comes on every Thursday can also help in knowing interesting things about everyday science and will also help in developing interest.

Subject 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
History 11 19 16 20 17
Geography 11 17 18 14 16
Indian Polity 12 20 16 14 13
Science 19 9 14 16 8
Indian Economy 19 17 19 10 13
Environment 15 17 17 18 11
Current Affairs And Misc 13 1 NO 8 22
Total 100 100 100 100 100

UPSC ‘s civil service examination, is a mode of exam par excellence. It  offer Neutral playground to all contestants, offering no build in advantage to any student. This element is more true in technical subjects like economics and general sciences ,including physics, chemistry, botany, biology ,zoology, etc. UPSC is looking for those candidates which it believes can be groomed as Efficient, talented and disciplined bureaucrats. UPSC is NOT looking for techn- ocrats or highly trained scientists, per se. General Science is about general awareness and general studies . It is not about hard core subjects that are generally covered under the umbrella called ‘Science’. We have prepared this book with the stated assumption that it will be found equally useful for those who have little or no exposure to these subjects, as to those who have mastered this subject and are trained to disburse their knowledge and it’s application over a wider area that has implications for daily life of an ordinary mortal. We have been careful to include the on going developments in the applied region of science. We have tried to explain the underlying principles and concepts in a simple language and easy style. Masters of Science may find this presentation too simple, and that is what we have intended to do



Blueprint To Crack Civil Services in 1st Attepmt – 

The book follows a step by step process like an algorithm, everything is precisely covered, there are so many tidbits which are important points which we need to take seriously.